1.    Abstract / Introduction   1

2.    Description of laboratory facilities  1

2.1.     Structural dynamics and earthquake simulation testing:  3

2.1.1.     Testing area 1 – Old Lab   3

2.1.1.1.  Shake Table O   4

2.1.1.2.  Strong floor O   5

2.1.1.3.  Gantry crane   6

2.1.1.4.  Reaction frames  7

2.1.1.5.  Shake table S   8

2.1.1.6.  Portable Reaction Wall (Block)  9

2.1.1.7.  Testing set-ups.  9

2.1.1.8.  Control room    11

2.1.1.9.  Equipment  12

2.1.2.     Testing area 2 – Expansion Lab   12

2.1.2.1.  Shake Tables A and B   12

2.1.2.2.  Reaction Walls  13

2.1.2.3.  Strong Floor  14

2.1.2.4.  Gantry crane   15

2.1.2.5.  Instrumentation platform    15

2.1.2.6.  Visitors gallery   16

2.1.2.7.  Servers room    16

2.1.2.8.  Operator deck / room    17

2.1.2.9.  Equipment  17

2.2.     Support areas  18

2.2.1.     Fabrication area   18

2.2.1.1.  Machine shop area   19

2.2.1.2.  Welding facility   20

2.2.1.3.  Materials storage   21

2.2.1.4.  Gantry crane   21

2.2.2.     Delivery area   22

2.2.2.1.  Rigging equipment  23

2.2.2.2.  Personnel Platforms  24

2.2.2.3.  Gantry crane   25

2.2.3.     Wood fabrication area   25

2.3.     Related Support facilities  26

2.3.1.     Soil testing lab   26

2.3.2.     Instructional soil lab   26

2.3.3.     Instructional structures lab   26

2.3.4.     Electronics Packaging Laboratory   27

 

 

1.     Abstract / Introduction

The Department of Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering (CSEE) at the University at Buffalo (UB) houses the Structural Engineering and Earthquake Simulation Laboratory (SEESL).   SEESL is hosting a key equipment site, NEES@buffalo, in a nationwide earthquake engineering "collaboratory" - the National Science Foundation's "George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation" (NEES).

The Laboratory comprises of (i) physical facilities described in detail in this report, (ii) faculty specialists who develop and perform experiments and design lab instrumentation and setups, (iii) permanent laboratory staff and (iv) laboratory services for research and development. The physical facilities are described in detail in the Lab Manual, while the second through fourth items are described in in the website http://nees.buffalo.edu/ 

The physical features include:

·                     Three Earthquake Simulators, known also as Shake Table

o                    Two relocatable 7.0m x7.0m platforms with six-degrees-of-freedom, 50 tons payload each

o                    One 3.6m x 3.6m with five-degrees of freedom, 50 tons payload

·                     A two stories bi-axial Shaking Table system used as Non-structural Component Simulator

·                     A 175 m2 Strong Reaction Wall for reactions to horizontal loading devices (actuators) for large scale testing

·                     Two 340 m2 Strong Testing Floor(s) for vertical reactions and tie downs for large scale models

·                     A bi-axial Laminar Box for 1.0 g soil testing

·                     Reconfigurable assemblies of Static and Dynamic Servo-controlled Actuators with advanced control systems (STS, Flextest, etc)

·                     A High Performance Hydraulic Power Supply with flow exceeding 6000 litters per minute (1600 gallons per minute)

·                     High speed wide band Local and Wide Area Gigabit Networks interfaced and supported by with NEESit services

·                     Tele-presence & Tele-operations capabilities for local and wide area collaborations in real time

·                     Advanced Dynamic, Pseudo-dynamic, and Static Testing Capabilities including a generic advanced procedure “Real Time Dynamic Hybrid Testing (RTDHT)

This report introduces the laboratory systems, equipment and personnel and shows several examples of past experiments.

For details on services, additional information is available from the website http://nees.buffalo.edu/  For further details contact:

Prof. A.M. Reinhorn, Director SEESL

Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

135 Ketter Hall, North Campus

University at Buffalo

Buffalo, NY 14260

Tel: (716) 645-2114 ext. 2419  or (716) 645-5400 ext 20   

Email:  reinhorn@buffalo.edu

OR

Mr. Mark C. Pitman, Technical Services Manager, SEESL
Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering
161M Ketter Hall, North Campus
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260
Tel: (716) 645-5400 ext. 16

Email: mpitman@eng.buffalo.edu

2.     Description of laboratory facilities

The Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering at the University at Buffalo has an extensive earthquake simulation, structural, and geotechnical engineering testing facility that is a key node in a nationwide earthquake engineering "collaboratory" - the National Science Foundation's "George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation" (NEES). The entire lab facility consists of four main laboratory rooms, two earthquake laboratories, identified below as Testing Area 1 and Testing Area 2, a Receiving Area and a Fabrication Area, located side by side within Ketter Hall. In addition to these laboratories, Ketter Hall also houses many of the Civil and Structural Engineering faculty offices and a number of smaller laboratories in structural and geotechnical engineering used for research and instruction. These laboratories are also briefly described herein.  Figure 2‑1 presents a plan drawing of the laboratory facilities.


Figure 2‑1: Plan of Laboratory Facilities

2.1. Structural dynamics and earthquake simulation testing:

2.1.1.   Testing area 1 – Old Lab

Figure 2.1.1‑1: Testing Area 1 within Plan of Laboratory Facilities

 

The Testing Area 1 of the Structural Engineering and Earthquake Simulation Laboratory is the smaller of the two main earthquake laboratories located within the building. Figure 2.1.1‑1 identifies Testing Area 1 within the general plan of the laboratory.

It consists of a large rectangular room approximately 70 ft. (21m) long, 65 ft. (20m) wide, and 30 ft. (9m) tall, enclosing a large strong floor area to which large scale or full-sized specimens and structural assemblages can be attached for quasi-static and dynamic testing. Portion of the area is dedicated to a seismic simulator and a Single-Degree-of-Freedom shake table. A Number of reaction frames are also available for providing lateral support. The area is accessible through a 20 ft. (6m) wide by 13 ft. (4m) high roll up door, and a 12 ft. (3.7m) wide by 12 ft. high (3.7m) roll up door. Both doors are located at the north end of the laboratory and open into the fabrication and receiving areas, which make for excellent accessibility to the loading bay. The laboratory has an overhead bridge crane which is capable of moving materials and test units to any location within the seismic laboratory. Also available within this laboratory are two bearing testing machines.  The Large Bearing Testing Machine has been developed and primarily used for commercial testing of large bearings. The Small Bearing Testing Machine is highly versatile and is capable of applying simultaneous compression or tension, shear and rotation on specimens. An office is located in the southwest corner of the laboratory which houses the control center for the seismic simulator. A storage room is also located in this vicinity which stores instruments and data acquisition equipment.

Figure 2.1.1‑2: Shake Table O in Testing Area 1 with extension block

2.1.1.1.        Shake Table O

A portion of the seismic lab is dedicated to a 12 ft. (3.7m) by 12 ft. (3.7m) seismic simulator. An opening in the floor allows for a shake table pit to enclose the simulator as well as its mechanics. This shake table has been in use at the University at Buffalo for nearly 20 years.  In 2004, it has been refurbished with a new controller and re-built actuators. Figure 2.1.1.1‑1 and Figure 2.1.1.1‑2 present plan, elevation and isometric views of the shaking table and a trench around it. Details and specifications of the seismic simulator are presented in the laboratory equipment section.

Figure 2.1.1.1‑1: View of the Shake table and the trench

Figure 2.1.1.1‑2: Plan and elevation view of the shake table

2.1.1.2.        Strong floor O

The test floor is a five cell reinforced concrete box girder 40 ft. (12.2m) long, 60 ft. (18.3m) wide, and 8 ft. (2.5m) overall in height. The thickness of the top test floor slab is 18 in. (46 cm). Tie down points consist of (4) 2 ˝" holes which are arranged symmetrically in both directions. Each tie down point has an axial load allowable capacity of 250 kips (1112kN). Figure 2.1.1.2‑1 presents a view of the strong floor including the layout of the tie down points.

Figure 2.1.1.2‑1: View of the strong floor with tie down points

2.1.1.3.        Gantry crane

Testing Area 1 has a 15ton / 33 kip (~150kN) capacity overhead bridge crane which is capable of moving materials and test units to any location within the seismic laboratory. Operation by Staff or Trained Personnel ONLY!

Figure 2.1.1.3‑1: 40Kip Gantry Crane

2.1.1.4.        Reaction frames

Located within the laboratory area are several reaction frames that have been fabricated in-house and are used to provide adequate support for lateral loading. The tallest frame can be used to test specimens up to 20 ft. (6m) tall with lateral loads of up to 250 kips (1112kN) at a height of approximately 8 ft. (2.4m) or lower. The frame can also support up to 120 kips (534kN) lateral load applied at a height of 8 ft. (2.4m) or higher. Arrangements are available for developing vertical load in addition to lateral load, and for providing lateral stability to the specimen.

Figure 2.1.1.4‑1: Picture of the tallest reaction frame

 

A second, shorter reaction frame that is also available has been designed for 55 kip (245kN) horizontal force applied at a height of 100 in. (2.54m) above the floor. It is furnished with 55 kip (245kN), ± 6 in. (15.24 cm) stroke, and 90gpm (340.7lpm) servovalve actuator. Specimens may be attached to the strong floor or to a W21 x 50 beam that is attached to the strong floor. The reaction frame may be used with an existing versatile steel portal frame (column W8 x 24, beam W8 x 21, length 100 in (2.54m), height 75 in. (1.9m), with simple connections that can be easily converted to semi-rigid and rigid) to test energy dissipating systems.

Figure 2.1.1.4‑2: Picture of the shorter reaction frame

2.1.1.5.         Shake table S

Testing Area 1 features also a Single-Degree-of-Freedom shake table.  Built by laboratory personnel and students, the table is 3 ft. by 5 ft. (0.9m by 1.5m), has payload of 6 kips (26.7kN), a stroke of ±3 in. (762mm) and can reach accelerations of 0.8g. The table is driven by a 5.5 kip (24.47kN) actuator with two 15gpm (56.78lpm) servovalves. The specimen height is restricted by uplift conditions since the table rides on slide bearings. It is suitable for use with an available three-story, 6 kip (26.7kN) steel model structure.

Figure 2.1.1.5‑1: Shake Table S in Testing Area 1 with proprietary model

2.1.1.6.        Portable Reaction Wall (Block)

Figure 2.1.1.6‑1: Picture of Portable Reaction Wall

2.1.1.7.        Testing set-ups.

The laboratory is equipped with two bearing testing machines.  The Large Bearing Testing Machine has been developed and primarily used for commercial testing of large bearings.  It is capable of applying 1600 kips (7117kN) vertical load, and lateral displacement of ±5 in. (125mm) amplitude and 10 in/sec (255mm/sec) peak velocity. Figure 2.1.1.7‑1 and Figure 2.1.1.7‑2 present views of the bearing testing machine in the testing of a single elastomeric bearing and of a pair of elastomeric bearings.

Figure 2.1.1.7‑1: Testing of a Single Elastomeric Bearing in Large Bearing Testing Machine

Figure 2.1.1.7‑2: Testing of a Pair of Elastomeric Bearings in Large Bearing Testing Machine

 

The Small Bearing Testing Machine is a highly versatile machine that is capable of applying simultaneous compression or tension, shear and rotation on specimens.  It has a 50 kip (223kN) vertical load capacity (but expandable if a higher capacity load cell is used), ±6 in. (150mm) horizontal displacement capacity, ±2 degrees rotational capacity and peak speed of over 20 in./sec (0.5m/sec).   Figure 2.1.1.7‑3 presents a view of the machine in the testing of an XY-FPS bearing in combined tension and high speed shear.

Figure 2.1.1.7‑3: Testing of a Bearing in Small Bearing Testing Machine

2.1.1.8.        Control room

An office is located in the southwest corner of the laboratory which houses the computer network control center for the seismic simulator as well as office space. A storage room is also located in this vicinity which stores a majority of the data acquisition equipment

Figure 2.1.1.8‑1: Control Room in Testing Area 1

2.1.1.9.        Equipment

The Test Area 1 of the laboratories is supplied with (2) MTS Hydraulic Power Supplies. Each of the pumps, 506.81 model, consists of (2) discrete hydraulic pumps with individual flow rates of 70 gpm, for a total of 280 gpm. The pumps can be operated individually or in any combination to achieve the required flow rate. The hydraulic supply, manifolds, is available at several stations throughout the laboratory.

Also available are six static actuators (four Parker and two Miller) and eight MTS dynamic actuators.

2.1.2.   Testing area 2 – Expansion Lab

Figure 2.1.2‑1: Testing Area 2 within Plan of Laboratory Facilities

2.1.2.1.        Shake Tables A and B

A set of two high-performance, six degrees-of-freedom shake tables, which can be rapidly repositioned from directly adjacent to one another to positions up to 100 feet apart (center-to-center). Together, the tables can host specimens of up to 100 metric tons and as long as 120 feet, and subject them to fully in-phase or totally uncorrelated dynamic excitations

Figure 2.1.2.1‑1: View of Shake table A

2.1.2.2.        Reaction Walls

There are two Reaction Walls in Test Area 2, one next to strong floor and one next to the shake table trench.

Physical Dimensions of the Reaction Wall next to Strong Floor are:

·         Length: 41'-0''

·         Height: 30'-0''

·         Thickness: 2'-0''

 

Figure 2.1.2.2‑1: Reaction Wall next to Strong Floor

 

Physical Dimensions of the Reaction Wall next to Shake Table Trench are:

Figure 2.1.2.2‑2: Reaction Wall next to Shake Table Trench

2.1.2.3.        Strong Floor

Physical Dimensions of the Strong Floor in Test Area 2 are:

·         Length: 79'-0''

·         Width:  39'-0''

Figure 2.1.2.3‑1: Picture of Testing Area 2

2.1.2.4.        Gantry crane

Test area 2 is equipped with 40T Gantry crane that spans width of test area and is operated by remote control. Operation is restricted to Staff or Trained Personnel ONLY!

Figure 2.1.2.4‑1: Picture of 40T Gantry Crane in Testing Area 2

2.1.2.5.        Instrumentation platform

Figure 2.1.2.5‑1: Picture of Instrumentation Platform in Testing Area 2

2.1.2.6.        Visitors gallery

Two Observation Decks located on 2nd and 3rd level of the lab.

Figure 2.1.2.6‑1: Visitors Gallery in Testing Area 2

2.1.2.7.        Servers room

All servers are housed in the server room, located on the first floor of the Testing Area 2 lab. Servers are mounted in racks with redundant and backup power supply. Dual gigabit Ethernet connections are provided to each server. There is an integrated LCD/keyboard console to locally administer all servers in the rack.

The Servers housed are:

·         NEESpop

·         NEES TPM

·         Mass Storage (NAS)

·         Domain Controllers

·         Web Servers

·         Email Server

Figure 2.1.2.7‑1: Server Room in Testing Area 2

2.1.2.8.        Operator deck / room

Elevated Control Room houses Workstations capable of controlling any data acquisition or control system in the lab. These workstations are preloaded with all the necessary software to run any system in the lab. Additionally, software to quickly visualize and analyze captured data is preinstalled as well.

Figure 2.1.2.8‑1: Control Room in Testing Area 2

2.1.2.9.        Equipment

The pump room, located in the basement of the Testing Area 2, houses four MTS 506.92 Hydraulic Power Supply (HPS) units, each rated at 185gpm (700lpm) flow with 3,000psi (207 bar) working pressure.

Four hydraulic outlet stations are located along the table trench for connection of hoses. Two stations are used to connect to the moveable tables at any one time and any free stations can be used to allow connection of structural actuators to the strong floor along the north side of the floor for certain configurations.

At the strong floor surface, adjacent to the strong wall, four high flow manual distribution manifolds (Error! Reference source not found.) are located, with four sets of 2 inch hand and check valves to allow connection to the three moveable Hydraulic Service Manifolds. These high flow (800gpm) Hydraulic Service Manifolds with additional accumulation are typically located near the lab reaction wall to provide full flow capacity to the high speed structural actuators. This arrangement will supply the highest available volume flow to the structural actuators for their demanding applications for real time hybrid and other high-demand testing. Also available are three low flow distribution manifolds along the south edge of the floor that are evenly spaced and each is provided with two sets of hand and check valves on the testing floor level.


 

2.2. Support areas

2.2.1.   Fabrication area

Figure 2.2.1‑1: Fabrication area within Plan of Laboratory Facilities

The Fabrication Area is located between Testing Areas 1 and 2. The area is approximately 58 ft. (17.7m) long and 31 ft. (9.5m) wide, and has direct access to the delivery area and loading bay. Moreover, the area features an additional enclosed 19 ft. by 22 ft. (5.8m by 6.7m) restricted machine area and a 12 ft. by 20 ft. (3.7m by 6.1m) technician’s office. The area has a 15 kip (66kN) capacity overhead bridge crane that is capable of moving materials and test units within the fabrication area. A 6 kip (27kN) capacity forklift is available and typically stored in the Fabrication or Delivery Areas.

A Tinius Olsen Universal Testing Machine is located within the Fabrication Area.  A MTS 150 kip (667kN) Compression/Tension Machine is located in this area as well.  These machines are used in the testing of concrete specimens, in the calibration of load cells and in the compression testing of elastomeric and sliding bearings.


 

2.2.1.1.        Machine shop area

 

Figure 2.2.1.1‑1: Machine Shop area within the Plan of Laboratory Facilities

The laboratory maintains facilities and personnel for performing machining, fabrication, welding and erection of structural systems. The equipment necessary to do so is located and stored within the Fabrication Area.  Available equipment includes the following:  

·         Large Drill Press

·         Small Drill Press

·         Lathe Machine

·         Small Lathe Machine

·         Vertical Saw

·         Horizontal Saw

·         Surface Grinder

·         Bench Grinder

·         Mill Machine

·         Mig Welder

·         Tack Welder

·         Stick Welder

·         Pipe Threading Machine

·         Inspection Table

Figure 2.2.1.1‑2: View of Machine Shop

2.2.1.2.        Welding facility

SEESL is equipped with several welding stations that can be moved to anywhere within the lab. The welding machines available are:

·         Mig Welder

·         Tack Welder

·         Stick Welder

Figure 2.2.1.2‑1: Welding Station

2.2.1.3.        Materials storage

Figure 2.2.1.3‑1: View of Materials storage

2.2.1.4.        Gantry crane

Machine shop area has a 15 kip (66kN) capacity overhead bridge crane that is capable of moving materials and test units within the area

Figure 2.2.1.4‑1: View of the Fabrication Area and the Gantry crane

2.2.2.   Delivery area

Figure 2.2.2‑1: Delivery Area within Plan of Laboratory Facilities

 

The Delivery Area is located between Testing Area 2 and the Fabrication Area. The area is approximately 58 ft. (17.7m) long and 28 ft. (8.5m) wide, and has direct access to the loading bay. The area has a 15 kip (66kN) capacity overhead bridge crane that is capable of moving materials and test units within the Delivery Area. Access to the loading bay is through an overhead door with 15ft.-4 in. 4.7m) width and 16 ft.-8 in. (5.1m) height.

The back of the Delivery Area features a carpenter’s shop that is used in both the fabrication of specimens and in the fabrication of furniture used in the Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering.

Figure 2.2.2‑2: View of the Delivery Area

2.2.2.1.        Rigging equipment

List of the available rigging equipment :

·         6 kip (27kN) capacity forklift

·         2 ton capacity Strong Bac

·         0.45 ton (1000 lbs) capacity Crane Basket

 

Figure 2.2.2.1‑1: Forklift

 

Figure 2.2.2.1‑2: Strong Bac

 

Figure 2.2.2.1‑3: Crane Basket

2.2.2.2.        Personnel Platforms

Two Electric Scissor lifts are available for lifting personnel within all the lab areas

Figure 2.2.2.2‑1: Electric Scissor Lifts

 

2.2.2.3.        Gantry crane

Delivery area is equipped with 15 kip (66kN) capacity overhead bridge crane that is capable of moving materials and test units within area.

Figure 2.2.2.3‑1: View of the 15kip Gantry Crane

 

2.2.3.   Wood fabrication area

Wood fabrication area is equipped with following:

·         Table Saw

·         Panel Saw

·         Circular Saw

·         Air Extractor

 

Figure 2.2.3‑1: Wood Fabrication Area

2.3. Related Support facilities

2.3.1.   Soil testing lab

The geo-engineering research laboratory includes (a) two automated computer controlled (Geocomp and GDS) apparatus for stress/strain controlled static/cyclic triaxial testing, consolidation and permeability testing, (b) two (Brainard-Kilman) pressure panels capable up to 1400kPa of pressure, (c) 70 mm diameter triaxial cells and flexiwall permeameters, (d) two Geotest (S22/5A) 100x100mm direct shear test apparatus and one 100x100mm Soil Test (D-500A) direct shear apparatus and digital data acquisition system, (e) Five 70mm diameter ELE consolidation cells and load stations with 8-channel ELE digital data logger,  (f) two HP network analyzers (LF Impedance Analyzer 4192A, 5Hz-13MHz and RF Impedance/Material Analyzer 4191A, 1MHz-1.8GHz) for material characterization/non-destructive testing; (g) a 60 cm diameter and 2.25m high calibration chamber and model test facility for static and dynamic penetration testing and model pile studies. The laboratory is provided with compressed air up to 700kPa pressure.

Geocomp apparatus consists of Loadtrac, Flow Trac, Hydraulic loading frame, Parker Actuator, Triaxial cells, signal conditioning unit, and Pentium-III computer and software for triaxial shear, cyclic shear, permeability, and consolidation testing. Specimens up to about 70 mm diameter with a cell pressure up to 800kPa can be tested. Axial load capacity is 2000 lbs. Axial strain up to 25% can be reached. Cyclic loading frequency in the range of 0.1 to 10Hz is possible.

GDS apparatus consists of digital panels for back pressure saturation, cell and pore pressure control, and loading and a computer. Specimen size is limited to 38 mm. Axial strain up to 25% can be reached. Cyclic loading frequency is limited to 2Hz.

The geo-engineering laboratory also includes a laminar box (2.75(W)x5(L), 6.2m high, internal dimensions) for full-scale prototype 1-g soil and soil-structure interaction studies for earthquake engineering research as described in the NEES Laboratory Manual.

2.3.2.   Instructional soil lab

The laboratory is equipped for conducting standard laboratory tests including classification tests, compaction, permeability (constant head and falling head), unconfined compression and direct shear tests. 

In particular the laboratory houses (a) two Geotest (S22/5A) 100x100mm direct shear test apparatus and one 100x100mm Soil Test (D-500A) direct shear apparatus and digital data acquisition system, (b) five 70mm diameter ELE consolidation cells and load stations with 8-channel ELE digital data logger, and (c) two Geotest (S 2013 and S 2014) unconfined compression test machines. 

While the laboratory is used primarily for undergraduate instruction, it is also used for research.

2.3.3.   Instructional structures lab

The laboratory houses an MTS Axial-Torsion machine (shown in Figure 2.3.3‑1), a small portable shake table, several frames for loading small structural models, a small electro-hydraulic actuator, four computers and a portable data acquisition system.

The MTS machine is capable of applying 100 kips (445kN) tension, 50 kip-in. (5.65kN-m) torque and rotation of up to 50 degrees.   It is used both for instruction and research.

The small portable shake table is used for instruction and demonstrations in the laboratory and in classrooms.  It is often transported to local schools and museums for demonstrations.  It is equipped with two scaled models of a seismically isolated structure and of a damped structure; both built using a length scale of 16 and a time scale of 4.

The portable data acquisition system features 16 channels of data acquisition and LabView data acquisition software.

Figure 2.3.3‑1: Picture of MTS Axial-Torsion machine

2.3.4.   Electronics Packaging Laboratory

Electronic Packaging Laboratory is a multi-disciplinary research laboratory in the Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental engineering. It brings together faculty members from civil, electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering for interdisciplinary research. The focus of the laboratory is the development of next generation microelectronics technology as well as finding new applications for their use in real world, such as using MEMS sensors for earthquake instrumentation and chemical agent detection in and around civil infrastructure.

The laboratory has extensive material characterization facilities, including a thermal chamber, high g (300g) vibration system, and material characterization units for mechanical, electrical, optical and thermal property determination. The laboratory also houses a sophisticated Moire interferometry system. More information about the laboratory can be found at the website www.packaging.buffalo.edu

Figure 2.3.4‑1 Electronics Packaging Laboratory

 

Figure 2.3.4‑2 Electronics Packaging Laboratory